What Is Colon Cancer? Cause, Symptoms, Stage And Treatment

What Is Colon Cancer? Cause, Symptoms, Stage And Treatment

Colon Cancer is typically known as bowel cancer, Colorectal cancer (CRC) or rectal cancer. This type of cancer grows abnormally and spread to the other part of the body. Moreover, the major sign that colon patient suffers are blood in the stool, a change in bowel movements, weight loss, and feeling tired all the time.

When colon cancer grows, there are many medications available to help manage it, including surgery, radiation therapy and drug therapy, such as chemotherapy, laser therapy, and immunotherapy. Here we have listed general information related to Colon Cancer.

Colon Cancer and Its Symptoms

It is a type of cancer that begins in the large (colon) intestine. The colon is the end part of the digestive tract. Usually, colon cancer hits older people although it can happen at any age. It usually begins as small, non-cancerous (benign) clumps of cells called polyps arising at the colon’s interior. Some of those polyps may become colon cancers over time.

Area where colon cancer takes placea
The area where colon cancer takes place. Source: Health Essentials

Polyps can be small, with few symptoms. For this purpose, doctors advise routine screening tests to help prevent colon cancer by detecting and eliminating polyps before they become cancer.

Signs and symptoms include:

  • Change in the consistency of your stool, diarrhea and persistent change in your bowel habits.
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Rectal bleeding or blood in your stool
  • Persistent abdominal discomforts, such as cramps, gas or pain
  • Feeling that Bowel doesn’t empty completely
  • Weight Loss

Most individuals with such cancer have no early-stage symptoms of the disease. These are likely to vary when symptoms appear, depending on the size and position of cancer in your large intestine.

Colon Cancer Stage and Treatment

After the initial diagnosis, cancer staging takes place and can involve a number of tests. After examining the test, the doctor will determine how much cancer has affected your body. Your physician will recommend a course of treatment after you have determined the stage. Let’s know the stage.

The stage of colon cancer
The stage of colon cancer, Everyday Health

Stage 0

Stage 0 cancer is diagnosed when abnormal cells are found in the colon’s wall or mucosa and it is called situ carcinoma.


polypectomy is performed which removes malignant cells during colonoscopy. If a greater area has been affected by the cancerous cells, an excision may be done. An excision is actually a minimally invasive procedure that can be performed often during colonoscopy.

Stage I

Cancer that has invaded the mucosa and the submucosa is considered stage I cancer of the colon. The submucosa underlines the large intestine and lies underneath the mucosa. Moreover, in the stage, stage I colon cancer, malignant cells may also have penetrated the colon wall’s deeper muscle layer, but no areas outside the colon have been invaded.


Surgery to remove the affected area is being performed. Well, it is called a partial colectomy.

Stage II

In this stage II, colon cancer spread through the colon wall but has not entered the lymph nodes. Subdividing this condition into three stages.

  1. Stage IIA cancer has spread to the serosa, but not beyond the outer barrier, to the serosa
  2. Phase IIB Cancer has spread beyond serosa but hasn’t damaged organs nearby.
  3. Stage IIC Cancer has affected the serosa and the nearby organs.


Stage II colon cancer is treated surgically to remove the affected areas. In some cases, even chemotherapy may be prescribed.

Stage III

Stages of Colon Cancer, YouTube

In stage III, colon cancer will spread through the colon lining. It also infects the lymph nodes.  However, other organs in the body probably won’t have a cancer cell. In addition, this Stage is broken down into three categories: IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC.


The course of action includes surgery to remove the affected areas and chemotherapy. On the other hand, Radiation treatment may also be prescribed for patients who are not well enough to undergo surgery.

Stage IV

In stage IV, the colon cancer has spread through the blood and lymph nodes to other organs in the body.


Patients with stage IV colon cancer may undergo surgery. The doctor removes small areas of damaged organs. But, in many cases, the areas are too large for elimination. Chemotherapy can help shrink the tumors, making surgery more successful or prolonging life.


Physicians are uncertain about the causes of colon cancer. Well, it is unpredictable, the cell undergoes mutation altering the DNA. Besides, the DNA cell includes the set of instructions that instructs the cell what to do.

Cause of colon cancer, Verywell Health

To keep your body functioning normally, healthy cells grow and divide in an orderly manner. But when a cell’s DNA gets damaged, cells divide further and cause cancer. Also, the cancer cells can grow over time to invade and kill nearby normal tissue.

Lifestyle Changes to Prevent

You can take these simple steps to reduce the risk of colon cancer. Here we have listed some tips.

  •  Eat vegetables and Fruits: Consuming fresh vegetables, fruits, and whole grains can make a massive difference. Also, it contains vitamins, minerals, fiber, and antioxidants.
  • Don’t drink too much: If you are a social drinker than its ok. But limit the amount of toxic you drink.
  • Quit Smoking: Consult your physician, friends, so that you can stop smoking.
  • Exercise: Workout early in the morning or in the evening at least for 30 minutes. If you have been inactive for a year, start slowing and build gradually.

Also, See: Epithelioid Sarcoma: Everything About A Rare, Slow-Growing Soft Tissue Cancer


About the author

Saugat G

I am an IT engineer & Guitarist but my passion for writing draws my attention.
Talking about my hobby, I am a travel freak, recently, I have been to Queen of Lake (Rara) for my vacation.